We have already known that too much glucose causes the deterioration of muscle health by increasing the fat percentage of the body. Also, when you have high blood sugar levels, glucose pervades all your vital organs, like kidney, eyes and limbs, encumbered by diabetics by-products already. But, how does too much glucose make detrimental effects on our health on this scale, from eyes to kidney, due to AGEs?
Glucose reacts in a complex manner with proteins to form brownish caramels that accumulate with age, known as advanced glycation end-products or AGEs(1). And, this is also the reason why meat is getting a brownish color when it is heated or cooked. In the process of producing AGEs, protein molecules circumscribed by glucose molecules and therefore lose their bending flexibility related to their vital features. In that regard, caramelization blocks and damages the function of proteins by constraining their ability to bind each other. In other words, it is the inexorable process of losing vital organs features because of the accumulation of AGEs in the bloodstream. For instance, in cataract, the clouding of the lens of the eye is due to the accumulation of AGEs in the eye veins. But this is not the only situation in glucose redundancy, AGEs, like amyloid and amyloid beta, cause protein binding deficiency in the brain, known as one of the main stimulants of Alzheimer's disease and dementia causing neurodegeneration. But, not surprisingly, worse follows, AGEs are mostly formed by free radicals and then exert their toxic effects by producing more free radicals, causing oxidative stress and inflammation(2). And, the inflammation of blood vessel walls induces cellular proliferation, oxidation and deposition of cholesterol(3) that prevent mental and physical diseases.
Exceeding your recommended daily intake of glucose is one of the main reasons for producing AGEs, along with diabetics. And, when too much glucose is delivered to cells via the bloodstream, it is not a matter of chance but a matter of choice to have mental and physical diseases caused by an accelerated form of oxidative stress.
(1) Lane, Nick. "The Double-Agent Theory of Ageing and Disease." Oxygen: The molecule that made the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. 311. Print.
(2) Lane, Nick. "The Double-Agent Theory of Ageing and Disease." Oxygen: The molecule that made the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. 311. Print.
(3) Lane, Nick. "The Double-Agent Theory of Ageing and Disease." Oxygen: The molecule that made the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. 311. Print.
Figure - 24.1 By NEUROtiker - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1787650
Figure - 24.2 By The original uploader was Bigplankton at English Wikipedia.Later versions were uploaded by Sunholm at en.wikipedia. - Human Genome wall for SC99 on ornl.gov. Copied from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here., Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1777620
Figure - 24.3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DW0CycBiVFE
Figure - 24.4 https://www.dementiablog.org/neurodegeneration-common-cure/
Figure - 24.5 https://www.creative-diagnostics.com/images/Acute%20inflammation.png
Figure - 24.6 https://cdn.powerofpositivity.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Blood-sugar.png